Good Shrubs for Wildlife
Your shrub is an ecosystem
Shrubs provide food or a home for many creatures, some welcome and some less so. Many gardeners make special efforts to attract hummingbirds and butterflies, but most would prefer that deer don't eat their pride and joy. Wild birds have to roost and nest somewhere and often it is in large shrubs.
The simplest rule to follow when choosing a shrub that will attract wildlife is to choose something native to your area. Birds and insects are very well adapted to native flora, but usually have little use for exotic shrubs. Hummingbirds and butterflies are especially picky and can often only survive on one type of plant.
There are other useful points to bear in mind. We all think of providing berries for the winter months, but berries are also a very valuable food source in summer and autumn, so add shrubs that crop at different times of the year. Gardeners with large amounts of land can have a serious beneficial effect by providing habitat, but also by linking habitats using hedgerows.
Butterflies need plants for two main things: nectar for themselves; and food for caterpillars. They usually raise their caterpillars on one or a very few types of plant. They are also choosy about where to get their nectar. Many of the shrubs that attract butterflies with nectar will also attract hummingbirds.
Latin name Common Name Comments USDA zones Abelia grandiflora Glossy Abelia Long flowering season attracts butterflies. 6-10 Abutilon hybridum Chinese Lantern Good for hummingbirds too. 8-11 Buddleia Butterfly Bush Famous for attracting butterflies, they come for the nectar. 5-9 Caesalpinia gilliesii Bird of Paradise Exotic flowers bring exotic butterflies. 9-12 Crataegus Hawthorn Host plant for Swallowtails and Hairstreaks. 4-9 Hibiscus Hibiscus Nectar for butterflies. 5-9 Hypericum 'Hidcote' St John's Wort Host for Hairstreak caterpillars. 5-9 Kolkwitzia amabilis Beauty Bush Nectar attracts many butterflies. 4-8 Lindera benzoin Spicebush Host plant for Swallowtail caterpillars. 4-8 Malus Crabapple Rotting fruit attracts some butterflies. Also host for Swallowtail and Hairstreak caterpillars. 4-9 Prunus serotina Black Cherry Host plant for several butterfly larvae. 3-9 Rhododendron Rhododendron/Azalea Attracts butterflies when in flower. 3-9 Ribes Flowering Currant Host for Angelwing caterpillars and provides nectar when in flower. 4-9
Birds except Hummingbirds
Birds are attracted to some shrubs for food, usually berries, and for nest sites. Almost any shrub that produces berries provides a feast for some bird or other. Hummingbirds feed on nectar and so they tend to like many of the same shrubs that are attractive to bees.
Latin name Common Name Comments USDA zones Amelanchier Serviceberry Tasty berries for everyone. 3-8 Aronia Chokeberry Edible berries. 4-8 Cornus Dogwood Berries on most varieties. 5-9 Cotoneaster Cotoneaster Salicifolius seems very popular, the smaller ones seem to be...