o What host plants are grown to feed caterpillars?

The numbered plants are those that somebody on the Butterfly Gardening forum has used to SUCCESSFULLY rear caterpillars to adulthood or has actually observed the caterpillar eating. If there is no numbered plant, then nobody on our forum can vouch for any specific plant. If a butterfly in the list below has no numbered plant, research the plant family shown for hostplant candidates.

Several forum members report that using nursery or home-improvement store plants can be poisonous to caterpillars and adult butterflies due to pesticides or other chemicals. You have three main options: 1--raise the plant from seed (best). 2--prune the plant, do not put it in a prominent location, and wait for some new growth before presenting the plant to butterflies (good). 3--buy nursery/store plants, wash them thoroughly (fair; it is hard to get all the chemical off of the plant).

SWALLOWTAILS

Giant Swallowtail
- Citrus family, Rutaceae
1. Ptelea trifoliata - hop tree, wafer ash
2. Zanthoxylum clava-herculis - hercules club
3. Zanthoxylum fagara - wild lime
4. Zanthoxylum americanum - prickly ash
5. Citrus spp. - various species, including cultivated
6. Murraya paniculata - orange jasmine
7. Ruta graveolens - rue
8. Dictamnus albus - gas plant


Spicebush Swallowtail
- Laurel family, lauraceae
1. Persea borbonia - redbay
2. Persea palustris - swampbay
3. Sassafras albidum - sassafras
4. Lindera benzoin - spicebush
5. Cinnamomum camphora - camphor tree

Pipevine swallowtail caterpillars will die if raised on tropical pipevines.
Please only use the pipevines on the list.


Pipevine Swallowtail
- Pipevine family, Aristolochia
1. Aristolochia macrophylla - big leaf pipevine
2. Aristolochia tomentosa - woolly pipevine
3. Aristolochia serpentaria - Virginia snakeroot
4. Aristolochia californica - California pipevine
5. Aristolochia fimbriata - white-veined Duchman's pipe
6. Aristolochia trilobata - Dutchman's Pipe
7. Aristolochia clematitis - Birthwort
8. Aristolochia watsonii - Desert pipevine

Anise Swallowtail
- Carrot family, Apiaceae
1. Pimpinella anisum - anise
2. Foeniculum vulgare - fennel
3. Lomatium - parsnip

Eastern Black Swallowtail
- Rue family, Rutaceae
- Carrot family, Apiaceae
1. Ruta graveolens - rue
2. Anethum graveolens - dill
3. Foeniculum vulgare - fennel
4. Petroselinum crispum - parsley
5. Zizia aurea - golden Alexander

Palamedes Swallowtail
- Laurel family, lauraceae
1. Persea borbonia - redbay
2. Persea palustris - swampbay
3. Sassafras albidum - sassafras

Zebra Swallowtail
- Pawpaw family, annonaceae
1. Asimina triloba - common pawpaw
2. Asimina pygmaea - dwarf pawpaw
3. Annona muricata - soursop

Polydamas Swallowtail
- Pipevine family, Aristolochia
1. Aristolochia elegans - calico flower
2. Aristolochia gigantea - giant pipevine
3. Aristolochia fimbriata - white-veined Duchman's pipe

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
- Rose family, Rosaceae
- Magnolia family, Magnoliaceae
- Olive family, Oleaceae
1. Prunus serotina - wild black cherry
2. Liriodendron tulipifera - tulip poplar
3. Ptelea trifoliata - wafer ash, hoptree
4. Fraxinus velutina - Arizona ash tree
5. Magnolia virginiana - sweetbay magnolia

Canadian Swallowtail
1. Populus tremuloides - quaking aspen

Two-tailed Tiger Swallowtail
- Cherry family, Prunus
- Ash family, Fraxinus
- Citrus family, Ptelea
1. Prunus virginiana - chokecherry
2. Ptelea crenulata - California hoptree
3. Ptelea trifoliata - Common hoptree

Pale Swallowtail
- Buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae
1. Rhamnus californicus - coffeeberry
2. Ceanothus arboreus - California lilac

Western Tiger Swallowtail
- Willow family, Salicaceae

WHITES and SULPHURS
Sulphurs
- Bean family, fabaceae

Cloudless Sulphur
1. Cassia alata - Candlestick plant
2. Senna hebecarpa - wild senna

Clouded (Common) Sulphur
1. White or red clover
2. Baptisia australis - wild indigo

Orange-barred Sulphur
Sleepy Orange
1. Cassia obtusifolia - sicklepod
2. Cassia bicapsularis - Christmas senna
3. Cassia surattensis - glaucous cassia
4. Senna mexicana - Bahama senna
5. Senna ligustrina - privet senna
6. Cassia javanica - apple blossom cassia, pink cassia
7. Chamaechrysta fasciculata - partridge pea
8. Senna alata - Candlestick cassia, candlebush

Cabbage White
- Mustard family, brassicaceae
1. The garden vegetable cabbage
2. Tropaeolum spp. - nasturtium

California Dogface
- Bean family, fabaceae
1. Amorpha californica - false indigo

Dainty Sulphur
- Aster family, asteraceae
1. Bidens spp. - Spanish needles

Great Southern White
- Mustard family, brassicaceae
- Nasturtium family, tropaeolaceae
- Saltwort family, bataceae

Common White
- Mustard family, brassicaceae

Sara orangetip
- Mustard family , brassicaceae

Orange (Alfalfa) Sulphur
- Bean family, fabaceae

GOSSAMERS (blues, coppers, hairstreaks, Harvester)

Gray Hairstreak
- Mallow family, malvaceae
1. Sida spp. - broomweed
2. Hibiscus moscheutos - swamp rose mallow
3. Hibiscus coccineus - swamp hibiscus/Texas star
4. Desmodium genus - beggarweed
5. Trifolium repens - white clover
6. Medicago sativa - alfalfa


Juniper Hairstreak
1. Juniperus virginiana - eastern redcedar

Cassius Blue
- Leadwort family, plumbaginaceae
1. Plumbago auriculata - leadwort
2. Plumbago scandens - wild plumbago

Echo Blue (aka Spring Azure or Summer Azure)
- Buckthorn family, rhamnaceae
1. Ceanothus spp. - California buckeye, California lilac

Achmon Blue
- Wild buckwheat family, polygonaceae
1. Eriogonum spp. - buckwheat

Eastern Tailed Blue
- clovers
1. Securigera (Coronilla) varia - crown vetch

Atala
- Zamia family, zamiaceae

Great Purple (or Blue) Hairstreak
- Mistletoe family, loranthaceae

Harvester
- In America, our only carnivorous butterfly.
They feed on woolly aphids of the genera schizoneura and pemphigus.

BRUSH-FOOTS
(admirals, fritillaries, crescentspots, checkerspots, anglewings, ladies, tortoiseshells, leafwings, patches)


Buckeye
- Snapdragon family, scrophulariaceae
- Plantain family, plantaginaceae
- Vervain family, verbenaceae
1. Agalinis fasciculata - wild foxglove
2. Dyschoriste spp. - twinflower
3. Ruellia caroliniana - wild petunia
4. Ruellia succulenta - thickleaf wild petunia
5. Verbena hastata - blue vervain
6. Orthocarpus spp. - owl's clover
7. Plantago lanceolata - English plantain/ribgrass
8. Mimulus - monkey flower
9. Linaria vulgaris - butter & eggs
10. Linaria canadensis - blue toadflax
11. Linaria purpurea - purple toadflax
12. Galvezia speciosa - Island bush snapdragon
13. Diascia spp. - twinspur
14. Plantago major - greater or common plantain


Most red-flowered and a few blue flowered passifloras will not support the butterflies that use these vines in the United States. Many red-flowered tropical passionvines are on the market. Please do not use them - they are similar enough to our own passionvines that our female butterflies will lay eggs on them, but the caterpillars will soon die.

Gulf Fritillary
- Passionvine family, passifloraceae
1. Passiflora incarnata - maypop
2. Passiflora suberosa - corky stemmed passionvine
3. Passiflora lutea - yellow passionflower
4. Passiflora alto - 'Amethyst'/'Lavender Lady'/'Star of Mikan'
5. Passiflora caerulea - blue passionflower/'Waterloo Blue'
6. Passiflora incarnata x cinnicata - incense passionflower
7. Passiflora vitifolia x caerulea - passionflower 'Lady Margaret'
8. Passiflora biflora - twin flower passionflower

Zebra Longwing
- Passionvine family, passifloraceae
1. Passiflora suberosa - corky stemmed passionvine
2. Passiflora biflora - two-flower passionvine
3. Passiflora lutea - yellow passionvine
4. Passiflora incarnata - purple passionflower or Maypops

Ruddy Daggerwing
- Fig family, moraceae
1. Ficus aurea - Florida strangler fig
2. Ficus citrifolia - wild banyan
3. Ficus benjamina - weeping fig
4. Ficus macrocarpa - Australian banyan

Julia
- Passionvine family, passifloraceae
1. Passiflora suberosa - corky stemmed passionvine
2. Passiflora lutea - yellow passionflower
3. Passiflora incarnata - maypop

Painted Lady
- Aster family, asteraceae
1. Borage
2. Sunflower
3. Malva sylvestris - High mallow
4. Malva parviflora - cheeseweed
5. Lavatera maritima - tree mallow
6. Thistles

American Painted Lady
- Aster family, asteraceae
1. Gnaphalium obtusifolium - cudweed, sweet everlasting
2. Gnaphalium falcatum - cudweed
3. Helichrysum petiolatum - licorice plant
4. Helichrysum thianschanicum - licorice icicles
5. Anaphalis margaritacea - pearly everlasting
6. Antennaria plantaginifolia - plantain-leaved pussy toes

West Coast Lady
- Mallow family, malvaceae
1. Lavatera maritima - tree mallow
2. Althea rosea - common hollyhock
3. Malva neglecta - common mallow

Red-spotted Purple
- Rose family, rosaceae
- Willow family,salicaceae
- Poplar family, populus
1. Salix nigra - black willow
2. Salix caroliniana - Carolina willow
3. Prunus serotina - wild black cherry
4. Prunus cerasifera - purple leaf plum
5. Malus angustifolia - Southern or wild crabapple
6. "hybrid crabapple"

Variegated Fritillary
- Passionvine family, passifloraceae
- Violet family, viola
1. Passiflora incarnata - maypop
2. Viola floridana - common violet
3. Viola soraria - woolly blue violet
4. Viola tricolor - Johnny Jump-ups
5. Viola x Wittrockiana - pansies

White Peacock
- Snapdragon family, scrophulariaceae
- Vervain family, verbenaceae
1. Bacopa caroliniana - water hyssop, lemon bacopa
2. Bacopa monnieri - water hyssop, herb of grace

Viceroy
- Willow family, salicaceae
- Poplar family, populus
1. Salix nigra - black willow
2. Salix caroliniana - Carolina willow
3. Salix caprea - goat willow

Phaon Crescentspot
- Vervain family, verbenaceae
1. Phyla nodiflora - fogfruit

Silvery Checkerspot
1. Echinacea purpurea - purple coneflower
2. Echinacea tennesseensis - Tennessee coneflower
3. Echinacea pallida - pale coneflower
4. Rudbeckia hirta - black-eyed susan
5. Liatris spicata - blazing star/gayfeather

Baltimore Checkerspot
1. Plantago lanceolata - English or narrow-leaved plantain
2. Chelone glabra - white turtlehead
3. Chelone lyonii - turtlehead "hot lips"

Question Mark
- Nettle family, urticaceae
- Elm family, ulmus
1. Humulus lupus - hops vine

California Tortoiseshell
- Buckthorn family, rhamnaceae
1. Ceanothus spp.

Red Admiral
- Nettle family, urticaceae
1. Urtica spp. - stinging nettle

Goatweed Leafwing
- Croton family, euphorbiaceae
1. Croton capitatum - goatweed

Hackberry Emperor
- Elm family, ulmaceae - Hackberry family, celtis
1. Celtis spp. - hackberry, sugarberry

Great spangled Fritilary
- Violet family, viola

Mourning Cloak
- Willow family, salicaceae
- Cottonwood family, populus
- Elm family, ulmus
1. Salix matsudana - corkscrew willow

White Admiral
- Birch family, betula
- Willow family, salicaceae
- Poplar family, populus
1. Prunus serotina - wild black cherry

Lorquin's Admiral
- Willow family, salicaceae

California Sister
- Oak family, quercus

Malachite
- Acanthus family, acanthaceae

Bordered Patch
- Asteraceae - sunflower family
1. Wedelia hispida - Zexmenia
2. Verbesina encelioides - Golden Crownbeard

MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES

Monarch
- Milkweed family, asclepiadaceae
1. Asclepias currasavica - tropical/scarlet milkweed
2. Asclepias incarnata - swamp milkweed
3. Cynanchum laeve - honeyvine
4. Asclepias fascicularis - narrow-leaf milkweed
5. Asclepias speciosa - showy milkweed
6. Asclepias physocarpa - Balloon or Swan plant
7. Calotropis gigantea - giant milkweek or crown flower


Queen
- Milkweed family, asclepiadaceae
1. Sarcostemma clausa - whitevine
2. Asclepias currasavica - tropical/scarlet milkweed

SKIPPERS

Brazilian Skipper
- Canna family, cannaceae
- Arrowroot family, marantaceae
1. Thalia dealbata - powdery thalia


Fiery Skipper
- Grass family, Poaceae
1. Bermuda grass - Cynodon dactylon

Silver-spotted Skipper
- Bean family, fabaceae
1. Amorpha fruticosa - desert false indigo
2. Robinia pseudoacacia - black locust

Long-tailed Skipper
- Bean family, fabaceae

Hoary Edge Skipper
- Bean family, fabaceae
1. Amorpha fruticosa - desert false indigo

Entered by larry_gene

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